Volume 37, Number 4
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Science, Technology and Development Vol. 37 (1), 2018
Research Article
Analysing Existence of University–Industry–Government Linkages in Sindh, Pakistan
Arabella Bhutto and Kamleshwer Lohana
Abstract: The field of Science, Technology and Innovation Studies (STIS) emerged in the developed world by the middle of the last century, is now far more than 50 years. During this time, the types of linkages amongst the three stakeholders: University–Industry–Government (UIG) of the STIS has evolved significantly. This study analyzed the status of university–industry linkages in the presence of Government policies and research programs in establishing the Triple Helix relationship in Pakistan, particularly in Sindh, Pakistan. This research, through the fully structured interviews of the three stakeholders in Sindh, explored in detail and identified reasons behind weak linkages amongst them. Different types of linkages have been identified through literature and through surveys of universities and industries in Sindh.

The existence or non-existence of these linkages has been analyzed in this study. The overall situation is presenting weak links between universities and industries in Sindh, Pakistan. Through the survey, it is identified that students’ training in the industrial environment for their recruitment, and access to the feedback from industry to develop curriculum are the highly scored motivation factors. The government policy and/or societal pressure are having less significant importance. It is identified that the industries show no interest and mutual trust in establishing linkages. However, the most effective identified mechanism proposes the encouragement of university students, teachers and researchers for the industrial visits. Furthermore, the role of government as a policy-maker and fund provider for research, in the triple helix model seems to be very weak.
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