Volume 38, Number 1
+ Volume 38, 2019
Issue 1
+ Volume 37, 2018
+ Volume 36, 2017
+ Volume 35, 2016
+ Volume 34, 2015
+ Volume 33, 2014
+ Volume 32, 2013
+ Volume 31, 2012
Science, Technology and Development Vol. 38 (1), 2019
Research Article
The Contribution of PCSIR towards Exploration of Minerals Reserves of Pakistan
Muhammad Arif Bhatti, Ansar Mehmood, Rashid Mahmood, Kamran Raza Kazmi and Adnan Akram

Pakistan has been blessed with extensive deposits of metallic, non-metallic and industrial minerals. Deposits of iron, copper, lead-zinc, chromite and coal are the top most among 15 major mineral reserves of the country. This study highlights the contribution of Pakistan Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (PCSIR) in the field of ore beneficiation.

In Pakistan, iron ores of Kalabagh, Noukundi, Chitral and Chiniot areas have been upgraded from 30- 45% to 55-66% iron content by froth flotation and magnetic separation techniques. Saindak copper ore has been upgraded from 0.46% Cu content to Chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) concentrate containing 30% Cu. Concentrates of sphalerite (ZnS) and galena (PbS) have been developed containing 55% metal content respectively by froth flotation from Besham lead-zinc ore. Indigenous chromite ore has been concentrated from 32% Cr2O3 to 52% Cr2O3. Other important metallic ores, like Tungsten ore of Chitral, containing 0.55% WO3 has been beneficiated to make Scheelite concentrate containing 64% WO3.

Graphite concentrate containing more than 98% graphitic carbon has been developed from local material of grade 17% C. Non-metallic minerals, like Sulphur, Barite and Nepheline Syenite, have also been upgraded by different mineral processing techniques. Beneficiation studies on Lakhra and Makerwal Coal deposits have also been carried out at PCSIR, Lahore.

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