Volume 36, Number 3
 
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Open Access Policy
Science, Technology and Development (STD) is an open access publication which means that all published manuscripts are feely available for unlimited access.

Open access publishing provides immediate, worldwide free access to all published manuscripts. Readers can view, download, print, and redistribute any article without any financial barrier, enabling greater distribution of an article.
Once published, the article will be made free to read and reuse upon publication under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) license.

There is no processing or publication cost to publish a manuscript in STD as the journal is funded by Pakistan Council for Science and Technology.
 
Publication Ethics

STD follows all ethical standards to ensure scholarly integrity in a responsible manner, to maintain public trust in the research published for public benefit and research development and is already striving to be a member of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).

Authorship
An individual who has made considerable academic contributions to a scientific investigation, for example, one who contributes significantly, to the conception, design, execution, analysis and interpretation of the data, participates in drafting, reviewing or revising the manuscript for intellectual content and approves the manuscript to be published.

Corresponding Author
If there are multiple authors in an article, one author should be designated as the Corresponding Author. A Corresponding Author assumes overall responsibility for the manuscript, providing significant contribution to the research effort. He/she may not necessarily be the principal investigator or project leader.

Co-authors
All co-authors of a publication are responsible for providing consent authorship to the Corresponding Author, should contribute in the research work, take responsibility for appropriate portions of the content, acknowledging that they have reviewed and approved the manuscript and are responsible for the content of all appropriate portions of the manuscript, including the integrity of any applicable research. Authors may acknowledge those people who helped in research project, such as office staff, editorial assistants, medical writers, or other individuals in their acknowledgement. Guest (symbolic), gift (an individual who has not contributed to the research work) and ghost authors are all inconsistent with the definition of authorship, and are unacceptable and a violation of this policy.

Conflict of Interest
A Conflict of Interest exists when judgment regarding the research is influenced by factors such as financial gain or personal relationships. All authors are required to disclose any financial, personal or other associations that may influence or be perceived to influence their work.

Plagiarism
STD is committed to publish original and unpublished material to maintain the integrity of the scientific record. The corresponding author must affirm that all of the other authors have read and approved of the manuscript. All articles submitted to STD are screened for plagiarism using the software namely Turnitin. If an article contains traces of plagiarism, STD will lead an investigation on the matter and will take further action depending on the type of plagiarism. Duplicate submission / publication. Authors must assure that the manuscript is not being considered for publication, in whole or in part, elsewhere. Processing on manuscripts found to have been published elsewhere or under review will be suspended and authors will suffer sanctions.

Citation Manipulation
Citation manipulation refers to the publication of an article, primarily, to increase an author's number of citations. This is against Ethical Guidelines of STD which strongly advises authors not to get involved in such activities.

Redundant Publications
A redundant publication refers to publishing the same intellectual material more than once, by the author. Suspected cases of redundant manuscript submission will be handled as per the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines

Sanctions:
In the case of a complaint of misconduct, STD will carry out an investigation following the COPE guidelines. All stakeholders will be given an opportunity to share their views on the matter. If the complaint raises valid concerns, the journal will implement sanctions on authors according to severity of the breach.

STD might find it compulsory in some cases to rectify certain pieces of literature. In which cases, it will abide by the COPE Retraction Guidelines.

An Erratum, or correction of an article, should be issued if:

  1. A small portion of an otherwise reliable publication proves to be misleading (especially because of honest error)
  2. The author/contributor’s list is incorrect (i.e. a deserving author has been omitted or somebody who does not meet authorship criteria has been included).

Retraction
Manuscripts should be retracted if:

  1. Journal Editors have clear evidence that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error).
  2. The findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (i.e. cases of redundant publication).
  3. It constitutes plagiarism.
  4. It reports unethical research.

Journal’s editors should consider issuing an expression of concern if:

  1. They receive inconclusive evidence of research or publication misconduct by the authors.
  2. There is evidence that the findings are unreliable but the authors’ institution will not investigate the case.
  3. They believe that an investigation into an alleged misconduct related to the publication either has not been, or would not be, fair and impartial or conclusive.
  4. An investigation is underway but a judgment will not be available for a considerable time.
 
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